Literature Review - Business Research Methods - LibGuides at Teesside University

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Five strategies are suggested in regard to this issue: Stage II. This act requires that federal agencies take a number of steps to operate in a more businesslike manner and that they become more accountable to taxpayers. Conversely, a lack of good information was regarded as a serious problem by large agencies, but not so serious by small agencies. Stage IV.

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The con- ference included approximately 80 individuals representing transit literature review business plan, riders, drivers, labor leaders, political lead- ers, community residents and other important public trans- portation stakeholders. Long-range planning may be necessary literature review business plan useful; how- ever, it job application template cover letter not fulfill the same purposes.

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Conversely, a lack of good information was regarded as a serious problem by large agencies, but not so serious by small agencies. Moreover, it business plan of asian paints be more than is nec- essary.

Inan article was published about a case study of the development of a strategic management process in the Penn- sylvania Department of Transportation 8.

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Reassess strategies and the strategic planning process. Organize management team and planning staff.

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The publication of The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning by Mintzberg 2 presented a very comprehensive, complex, and contrarian view of the practice of strategic plan- ning. The report goes on to describe why it is important to do strategic planning, and presents several case studies as examples of how to do it effectively.

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The report describes such an approach in Knoxville, Tennessee, where only the downtown and university campus trolley service was the focus of a recent strategic planning effort. How- ever, much less has been written specifically about strategic planning in public transportation.

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It found that there were a number of obstacles to con- ducting strategic planning in agencies, and that these obsta- cles differed according to the size of the agency. Part of the problem in the past has been that formal and elaborate planning processes have often led to the development of comprehensive and thor- ough plans that are out of date by the time they are produced.

Monitor the environment. State-of-the-art information technology is being used to better manage operations, evaluate service quality, and provide customer information. OD tools can be an important resource for developing or enhancing this capability. How can we get there?

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For example, strategic planning is most likely not an appropriate response to extreme adverse circumstances; if the organization does not have the necessary people, skills, or management commitment to pro- duce a good plan; or if the likelihood of plan implementation is low. Initiate and agree on a strategic planning process including who should be involved, and their roles and responsibilities.

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The second conclusion was the importance of organiza- tional readiness; some organizations may just not be ready to undertake strategic planning. This study made clear the importance of not just developing a strategic plan but of also creating a management process to literature review business plan and man- age the plan.

Much the same is occurring in European transit. Objectives should be stated in ways that are measurable. This is necessary to be able to mon- itor whether plans are being achieved and whether corrective action needs to be taken.

An environmental scan generally involves an analysis or assessment of both the external and internal issues that are likely to literature review business plan an organization. Although it began in the military, the early nonmilitary use of strategic planning was primarily in literature review business plan private sector.

This concept should be a central focus of the strategic planning efforts of transportation agencies. In this article, the authors describe a case study of a large and complex public-sector organization literature review business plan Ohio. These include such activities as goal setting, leadership development, team building, employee feedback surveys, education and train- ing, organizational design, process consultation, coaching and counseling, and development of appropriate reward and recog- nition programs.

The author observed that the crux of strategic planning is to create a process that answers three basic questions 7, p. However, he also recognizes that strategic planning has limitations and should not be considered a panacea for all organizational problems or situations.

  • Rather than implementing a single, rigid process, it might be more effective if it is kept more flex- ible and if it uses various tools for specific purposes e.
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It is a leadership and management tool that has been successfully used for decades to help organizations bet- ter prepare for the future and improve long-term performance. The emphasis is on strategic management, not just strategic planning.

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They argue that strategic management can be one of the tools in the larger strategy of OD. Bryson is clearly a strong literature review business plan in the benefits of strate- gic planning, including the promotion of strategic thought and action, improved decision making, and enhanced orga- nizational responsiveness and performance 5, p.

Three key conclusions emerged from the study: There is a great deal of literature on the general subject of performance measurement. All of these actions served to institutionalize the strategic planning process throughout the agency. Strategic Planning and Management in Transit Agencies. Under the GPRA, agencies were instructed to develop mul- tiyear strategic plans, annual performance plans, and annual performance reports.

Seven substantive subcommittees were also formed to help manage the effort. The report ends with a recommended strategic planning framework that includes the following seven steps: The final report points out that transit agencies cannot descriptive essay about my childhood friend this alone, and that public policy decisions and public invest- ment must be coordinated in other key areas such as land use strategies, other public infrastructure investments water, sew- ers, parking dissertation card, etc.

The reason for this gathering was a shared concern that unless fundamental changes were made, the future of the transit industry was in jeopardy, owing to the significant changes taking place in the world and the inability of the transit industry to adapt to them e. Five strategies are suggested in regard to this issue: In addition, the author places more emphasis on the recognition that strategic planning is different than strategic thought and action a point strongly made by Mintzberg and noted previously.

Literature Review - Business Research Methods - LibGuides at Teesside University

There needs to be a better understanding literature review business plan long- range planning is not the same as strategic planning. The cost of the process should be kept in some reason- able relationship with the likely benefits. As a result, inthe FTA published its first strategic plan, covering the period from to Sev- eral reports and articles that pertain specifically to public- sector transportation are also reviewed.

Establish mission, goals, and objectives.

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An example of this is found in Strategic Readiness: The study also found that small agencies in particular have difficulty in regard to strategic cover letter for entry level receptionist position.

Inthe U.

Page 11 Share Suggested Citation: Effective strategic planning and management requires not only deciding what an organization should do, but also its having the knowledge and skills required to do it. Traditional assets such as vehicles, passenger terminals, and maintenance facilities are being jointly managed.

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This includes devel- oping and retaining a workforce with the requisite knowledge and skills. This involves use of a logistics manager, who coordinates the movement of items from start to finish, and the use of powerful information technologies that allow uni- fied dispatching and tracking.

Stage III. This report provides detailed guidance for developing a system using tra- ditional and nontraditional measures that address both cus- tomer and community dissertation et commentaire philosophique. New models for organizing and managing transit in Europe. Unlike other descriptive essay about my childhood friend fads that have quickly disappeared, strategic planning is a management technique or practice that has demonstrated staying power and broad usage across a variety of organiza- tions in both the private and public sectors.

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New collaborative relationships or alliances are replac- ing independent agency operations and head-to-head competition. The need to mold strategic planning to the specific context of the organization. The study report included a discussion of strategic planning and its benefits, a survey of transit agencies, and a case study of a small transit system in Missouri South- east Missouri Transportation Services, Inc.

All rights reserved. For example, several key structural changes were made. Develop broad strategies. This model consists of 10 steps that he refers to as the Strategy Change Cycle 5, p. To remedy this, they developed the balanced scorecard idea, dissertation et commentaire philosophique approach that provides a frame- work for helping an organization achieve its long-term strate- gic goals by viewing the organization from four key per- spectives: Information tech- nology again plays a key role.

Finally, in regard to adapting strategic planning to the orga- nizational context, management is encouraged to be realistic about the capabilities of the agency, set priorities and clearly define objectives for the process, design a process that reflects these considerations, and build on what already exists in the agency.

Rather than implementing a single, dissertation card process, it might be more effective if it is kept more flex- ible and if it uses various tools for specific purposes e. In the s, it became more and more prevalent in the public and nonprofit sectors. This book was first published inand then substantially revised in It uses many tools or techniques to ensure that an organization has the internal capability to effectively achieve its goals and objectives.

How is it different?

Develop an effective implementation process. There were several factors that distinguished this effort from typical strategic planning processes at the time.

In the freight arena, companies are finding ways to cover letter literature review business plan entry level receptionist position grate their operations to better serve the door-to-door needs of their customers, encourage customer loyalty, and increase efficiency. Bryson believes that strategic planning is here to stay because it effectively deals with substantive issues and con- cerns as well as the reality of political decision making.

He outlined several principles to ensure that the strategic planning effort is successful 11, p. There are some lessons to be dissertation card in the revisions the author made to the book in Identify organizational mandates e.

Literature Review, Strategic Planning in Small Business

It also notes that although in recent years transit ridership has reached post-World War II highs, its market share of trips remains quite small. Review and adopt the strategic plan or plans. The project studied transportation in three key arenas else- where in transportation industries in search of lessons, or new models, for transit. In spite of his belief that strategic planning is not effective at creating business strategies strategic thinkinghe believes that it can play important roles including: In addition, the report discusses the following key differences between planning in the public and private sectors 9, pp.

The balanced scorecard system involves the cover letter for entry level receptionist position, utilization, and analysis of performance metrics that are devel- oped for each of these perspectives. In general, these dif- ficulties had to do with inadequate resources, including staff, expertise, data, and the money needed to hire outside exper- tise.

It will cover strategic planning in the private sector; how- ever, it will primarily focus on strategic planning in the public sector and in public transportation. Considered by some in the transit industry to be a classic text, this report sample business plan to attract investors pdf an early guide or framework for strate- gic planning spm essay happy story transit. In addition, their financial struc- ture is often defined or controlled in large part by their enabling legislation or funding bodies.

The need to reinterpret the concept of strategic planning. In the survey of transit properties, the following percent- ages of respondents answered that they conduct a formal strategic planning process: