The NiV strain identified in this outbreak appeared to have been transmitted initially from bats to pigs, with subsequent spread within pig populations. In Bangladesh and India, where Nipah virus infection is more frequent, exposure has been linked to consumption of raw date palm sap and contact with bats. Reducing the risk of bat-to-human transmission. The incubation period interval from infection to the onset of symptoms is believed to range from 4 to 14 days. The primary treatment for humans is supportive care. The primary treatment for security job application cover letter is supportive care. Transmission During the first recognized outbreak in Malaysia, which also affected Singapore, most human infections resulted from direct contact with sick pigs or their contaminated tissues.
Controlling Nipah virus in domestic animals Currently, there are no vaccines available against Nipah virus. Intensive supportive care is recommended to treat severe respiratory and neurologic complications. Freshly collected date palm juice should be boiled, and fruits should be thoroughly washed and peeled before consumption.
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Airborne precautions may be required in certain circumstances. The virus is drama school personal statement tips contagious in pigs. In infected people, it causes a range of illnesses from asymptomatic subclinical infection to acute respiratory illness and fatal encephalitis.
Keeping bats away from sap collection sites with protective coverings such as bamboo sap skirts may be helpful.
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This rate can vary by outbreak depending on local capabilities for epidemiological surveillance and clinical management. Nipah Virus Key Facts Nipah virus is an RNA virus that is part of the Paramyxovidae family that was first identified as a zoonotic pathogen after an outbreak involving severe respiratory illness in pigs and encephalitic disease in humans in Malaysia and Singapore in and During the later outbreaks in Bangladesh and India, Nipah virus spread directly from human-to-human through close contact with people's secretions and excretions.
Pigs are infectious during the incubation period, which lasts from 4 to 14 days. In Malaysia and Singapore, humans were apparently infected with Nipah virus only through close contact with infected pigs.
From toaround half of reported cases in Bangladesh were due to human-to-human transmission through providing care to infected patients.
Generally, mortality was low except in young piglets. An infected pig can exhibit no symptoms, but some develop acute feverish illness, labored breathing, and neurological symptoms such as trembling, twitching and muscle spasms.
Reducing the risk of human-to-human transmission. Surveillance tools should include reliable laboratory assays for application letter about chef detection of disease in communities and livestock, and raising awareness of transmission and symptoms is important in reinforcing standard infection control practices to avoid human-to-human infections in hospital settings nosocomial infection.
Prevention Controlling Nipah virus in pigs Currently, there are no vaccines available against Nipah virus.
In subsequent outbreaks in Bangladesh and India, consumption of fruits or fruit products such as raw date palm juice contaminated with urine or saliva from infected fruit bats was the most likely source of infection. There is no apparent disease in fruit bats. If an outbreak is suspected, the animal premises should be quarantined immediately.
Nipah should be suspected if pigs also have an unusual barking cough or if human cases of encephalitis are present. There is no apparent disease in fruit bats.
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A small number of people who recover subsequently relapse or develop delayed onset encephalitis. This is most commonly seen in the family and caregivers of Nipah virus-infected patients.
Controlling infection in health-care settings Health-care workers caring for patients with suspected or confirmed NiV infection, or handling specimens from them, contoh soal essay tentang kemerdekaan implement standard infection control precautions for all patients at all times As human-to-human transmission in particular nosocomial transmission have been reported, contact and droplet precautions should be used in addition to standard precautions.