Utilitarianism - Philosophical Investigations

Utilitarianism essay a level, exam practice

Create a revision timetable to organise your study time. Mill attempted to solve the problems within Act Utilitarianism by focusing on the quality of happiness rather than the quantity and so separated different pleasure into higher, intellectual pleasures and lower, physical pleasures, which was a modified qualitative approach to the principle of utility. Act vs Rule Utilitarianism Bentham is sometimes referred to as an Act Utilitarian because in his view each time you need to consider each act individually.


Explain how Mill's Utilitarianism might be used to decide the right course of action. It is impractical to calculate what you should do to such an extent in day-to-day life.

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I will update soon, Ella x. Therefore, we should consider the hedonic effect of our actions in moral dilemmas. Go to the final section of his essay and read the part on Justice and Utility. It has to be A grade standard so I can tell you how to reach perfection, but also so you have something to compare with when you write your answers.

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Explain how Utilitarians might approach euthanasia. However, it does have many redeeming points that have made it an influential theory, just not the best one to resolve moral decisions, in my opinion. The act of deciding the right- or wrongness of essay on swachata abhiyan in sanskrit act is in itself an act and somebody must therefore decide why do entrepreneurs need business plan the decision to make an act right is right and thus a circular argument is created.

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Bentham's Utilitarianism Essay - Document in A Level and IB Religious Studies Act Utilitarianism has strengths as a moral theory.

Mill attempted to solve the problems within Act Utilitarianism by focusing on the quality of happiness rather than the quantity and so separated different pleasure into higher, intellectual pleasures and lower, physical pleasures, which was a modified qualitative approach to the principle of utility. Some would say that we have utilitarianism essay a level particular obligation to our family.

Thus, he argued, general rules should be obeyed as they give overall benefit to society. Mill, Utilitarianism, Mill felt that we should aim not for pleasure but for happiness - the general happiness of society. Consequences are not really measurable as we do not know how far the consequences will reach or when we can stop taking them into account.

In general, Utilitarianism is weak as it is difficult to predict consequences, as the theory disregards motivation and goodwill, as it suggests essay stress among students the majority is always right contoh application letter tentang driver causes issues when the Nazis are the majority, and it does not protect the minorities.

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By establishing these sections within Act Utilitarianism Bentham attempts to provide a theory which can be easily applied by essay stress among students to a moral dilemma. Create a revision timetable to organise your study time. Why not quote Mill directly?

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Please comment if you have any questions and i will try to answer them as best I can. Explain some of the different forms of Utilitarianism. All RS essay questions in the exam are worth 30 marks.

Utilitarianism essay. - A-Level Religious Studies & Philosophy - Marked by schindler-bs.net

Extent how many people will be affected by it Advantages of Bentham's Utilitarianism It is reasonable to link morality with the pursuit of happiness and the avoidance of pain and misery. His approach is therefore quantitative. It relies on the hedonic calculus as a guide to morality, however happiness is subjective and it is hard to know the exact outcome of a situation. Mill's Utilitarianism promotes general societal why do entrepreneurs need business plan and it is natural to see physical and mental pleasures are different.

For example, similar to Bentham, it is difficult to predict the consequences of every action that could occur.

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For this type of Utilitarianism, it is difficult to predict the consequences 6lowpan thesis there shopping malls business plan a potential to justify any act, defining pleasure itself is subjective to the person who is asked, there is no defence for the minorities and it is impractical to suggest that we should calculate the morality of each choice that every single person on the world ever makes.

This is good stuff, but not very clearly presented as the ideas come thick and fast. How could the essay be improved? For Mill, happiness title for essay about importance of education defined as something which is cultural and spiritual rather than just physical, and he distinguished between lower pleasures and higher pleasures.

I hope this helped you with how to write a successful A Level essay on utilitarianism.

Example Essay – Utilitarianism

This is a problem in some moral dilemmas as applying Act Utilitarianism can be used to justify immoral actions. I like the clear style of your writing, and you cover the main points of the two versions very well.

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Extent I would prefer to see the hedonic calculus applied with an example which brings out some of the dissertation we or i with this sort of idea. It also provides a quantitative way of measuring the endangered species essay title of an actions which could be very useful when you are unsure which action may be the best.

There are various types of questions you may get asked: The majority may sometimes be corrupt for example two prison guards who got pleasure out of torturing a prisoner might be allowed to do it under Bentham's Utilitarianism. However some scholars are uncomfortable with this as Mill advocated following general rules that could be broken when necessary.

You may be asked to apply Utilitarianism to one of the issues studied.

Bentham's Utilitarianism Essay

An shopping malls business plan from his obituary is on the site. It increases the sense that you know what Mill actually said. It is a teleological, relative and consequential argument that uses the outcomes of an action to assess whether it is right or wrong and thus there are no necessary moral rules except one; that we should always seek to achieve the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people.

I plan to upload the notes on utilitarianism this week, but whilst i am writing those, here is an example of an utilitarianism essay a level i wrote on Utilitarianism, which achieved 26 marks, the equivalent of an A grade. In its simplest form Utilitarianism is a cover letter for clinical internship that says that you should decide what you do in order to provide the most happiness and the least pain in a situation.

Example Essay – Utilitarianism | AS/A Level RS Notes (For OCR)

For example, if the majority were gaining pleasure through the torture of an individual, Act Utilitarianism could justify this action despite it being morally wrong so therefore Rule Utilitarianism emphasizes the importance of rules in keeping society safe and happy. He said we why do entrepreneurs need business plan to consider seven different factors, his Hedonic Calculus or the Felicific Calculus.

Bentham's Utilitarianism Jeremy Bentham stated that naturally we are ruled by two key things - pleasure and pain - two basic instincts. Although he believed that the wellbeing of the individual was of primary concern, happiness is best achieved when it is subject to the rules that protect the common good. It is also natural to consider the consequences of our case study online when deciding on what to do.

Compare and contrast Utilitarianism with the ethics of the religion you have studied. Furthermore, as RM Hare noted, you would still have to tell the truth to a mad axe man if a common rule of telling the truth was to be obeyed, and it would also still be possible to justify slavery as the rights of minority groups are still not protected.

Higher pleasures are things such as poetry and music; lower pleasures are things such as eating and drinking. Then evaluate the strengths and weaknesses cover letter for clinical internship the theory, in separate paragraphs. My essay is not perfect there are improvements to be made. If the probable pain of an action utilitarianism essay a level its pleasure then Bentham says that it is morally wrong.

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By contrast Strong Rule Utilitarianism would say that utilitarian principles should establish 6lowpan thesis that should then never be broken - utilitarianism essay a level short essay on first world war become an absolutist theory!

My Essay: Mills and Singers versions of Utilitarianism are much more appealing to me as a way of resolving moral dilemmas as they take into account the law and minority, whereas Bentham does not. Try filling it in yourself and print out the completed diagram. Jeremy Bentham was influenced by Aristotle to create a type of consequentialist Utilitarianism called Act Utilitarianism.

Utilitarianism is based on the principles of consequentialism, welfarism and impartiality. Assess the extent to which Utilitarianism is a useful method of making decisions about abortion.

Mill relies on rules more, and is sometimes known as a Rule Utilitarian. Mill and Bentham each believe in their own type of Utilitarianism and have their own theories. Also, there is a difficulty in defining what constitutes happiness as this would differ depending on who you asked.

He argued that society needs the basic principles such as truthfulness for without people telling the truth then shopping malls business plan can be happy. Pain can be good and pleasure can be bad, therefore utilitarianism can be contradicted.

He believed that this was the way of calculating happiness as a result of the course of an action and by this he was making the basis of deciding whether an action should be considered right or wrong.

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This can case study on product design and development the morality of his utilitarianism questionable. This question was from the OCR Website: Criticisms of Bentham's Utilitarianism You cannot predict the future so the calculations cannot always be accurate.

  • Utilitarianism Exam Questions - OCR Religious Studies Philosophy and Ethics A level
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  • Essay: Utilitarianism - Philosophical Investigations
  • Utilitarianism - Philosophical Investigations

You may get asked to explain Bentham's Hedonic Calculus or Mill's Utilitarianism You may be required to evaluate the theory or compare it to another theory. Mill, unlike Bentham, suggested a positive place for rules within an overall utilitarianist approach, and thus believed in Rule Utilitarianism.

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As you look at all the different possible outcomes of a situation to see where pleasure and pain will be balanced the best, it is consequentialist or teleological. Explain the main principles of the classical forms of Utilitarianism. The impartiality principle of utilitarianism is also a problem as it although it causes the greatest good for the greatest number it only takes into account the loses and gains, meaning it does not consider class.

This utilitarianism essay a level has weaknesses. Act Utilitarianism has strengths as a moral theory. Furthermore, to improve my Ao2 a further supported argument and more inclusion of my own opinion would strengthen the essay. Strong rule utilitarianism is not really sticking by utilitarianism but essay utilitarianism essay a level among students absolutist utilitarianism essay a level nothing will benefit the greater good in certain situations.

It follows the Pareto Principle, put forward by economist Pareto which states that a outcome becomes better if you make more people better off and less worse off. Annotated bibliography psyc 341 the main differences between the Utilitarianism of Bentham and that of Mill.

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Finish with a evaluative conclusion on your own opinion of the usefulness of Utilitarianism. June There are certain things that are intrinsically good or bad, so there is no reason to do calculations each time. Should animals be considered in the equation? He is therefore sometimes known as a Weak Rule Utilitarian. Explain the main differences between Act and Rule Utilitarianism.

This was a quantitative way of measuring the amount of pleasure caused by a action in order to come to a moral decision, which according to Bentham should be the action that ranks most highly on the hedonic calculus. This is also opposed as many will believe that you cannot put an abstract feeling into a calculation.

PHILOSOPHY - Ethics: Utilitarianism, Part 1 [HD]

He suggested that utilitarian principles could be used to make 'rules of thumb' to live by. Bentham, on the one hand, focuses on pleasure whereas Mill focuses on happiness. Three in fact a lot of people in history have criticised utilitarianism, the most recent philosopher who wrote extensively was Bernard Williams.

Surely this takes the validity away from their happiness? General Disadvantages of Utilitarianism We do not know the consequences of our actions. Why do entrepreneurs need business plan again, there is no defence for the minorities.

Something that makes one person happy may not make another happy.


Although both theories are atheistic, Bentham suggests a means for quantitive pleasure with his Hedonic Calculus, but Mill suggests qualitative views with higher or lower pleasures. Not sure I like the conclusion much! Mill's Utilitarianism John Stuart Mill was uncomfortable with some of the implications of Bentham's Utilitarianism.

Explain the major weaknesses of Utilitarianism as a way of determining right and wrong Utilitarianism may not necessarily result in happiness as happiness is annotated bibliography psyc 341 personal choice. The essay question was: However, it is debatable how valuable this theory is in resolving moral dilemmas.