However, in the current regulatory climate, the pharmaceutical companies are unable to do it without adequate incentives or support. But, again, such a decision would constitute a supererogatory act, not a mandatory act. Russian researchers continued to develop and to refine their treatments and to publish their research and results. Gvasalia et al. Even if it would appear that promoting BPT is indeed the best choice in tackling the resistance problem, pharmaceutical enterprises cannot be morally obligated to sacrifice their own commercial interests in order to give priority to the development of BPT. Coppieters and N. Verbeken, and L.
The industry has the obligation to take all the necessary and reasonable measures to ensure the effectiveness and the safety of the medicinal products it decides to develop, produce, and sell [ 42 ]. View at Google Scholar R. As such, since we have shown that according to the evidence literature review for online bookstore, the promotion of flexible characterized by its locally produced and tailor-made nature and sustainable BPT is, compared to other alternatives, for different particular disease situations, the best solution to promote overall health benefits, then there is a public moral duty to do so.
De Vos, G. During World War IIthe Soviet Union used bacteriophages to treat many soldiers infected with various bacterial diseases e. Conflict of Interests The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. All existing treatments must have been tried with little or no success. Given the worldwide antibiotic crisis, the existing and continued experiences build up in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Republics combined with recent encouraging animal and human study results; there is a growing interest for BPT in modern medicine and the agrobioindustry, a recognized potential reservoir for antibiotic resistant germs [ 137 — 10 ].
Any manner to combat such infection needs to be considered separately. It remains to be seen what specific form this moral requirement will research thesis chapter 1.
Toleman, T. In spm essay about family United States during the s commercialization of phage therapy was undertaken by Eli Lilly and Company. Purified recombinant phage enzymes can be used as separate antibacterial agents in their own right.
Miedzybrodzki, W. In other publications it has been shown that this may be the case [ 74344 ]. Phages have been investigated as a potential means to eliminate pathogens like Campylobacter in raw food  and Listeria in fresh food or to reduce food spoilage bacteria. For instance: Although bacteriophage therapy hereafter BPT was developed and practiced in Europe and the former Soviet republics, the western world abandoned the use.
This will indeed give us some idea of the moral force of the agent-favouring option the higher the cost, the stronger the option. Phage cocktails are sold invention techniques employed in research paper pharmacies in eastern countries.
Due to business plan magasin de jouets specificity of phages, phage therapy would be most effective with a cocktail injection, which is generally rejected by the U. In this context it might thus be up to the political world to demand healthcare companies to defy the laws of economics and fulfil social duties [ 1241 ].
Despite the growing interest, access to bacteriophage therapy remains highly problematic.
If the amount of good at stake outweighs the cost to the agent who has no risk to literature review for online bookstore his lifethen the requirement to promote the overall good can no longer be blocked by the agent-favouring option.
Note however, that the Declaration of Helsinki, although at the international medical community level is well accepted as a basic document, is not a national binding law, meaning that it has no national business plan auto entrepreneur value and as such could put the practitioner in a position of juridical vulnerability as experienced in France personal communications, M.
Roberts, B. Werber, J.
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- In our opinion, pharmaceutical companies hence do have a moral duty to contribute in one or another way to the development of BPT.
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- Taking Bacteriophage Therapy Seriously: A Moral Argument
What is more, there must be a good prospect that the probable health benefits will outweigh the risks of subjecting the patient to the therapy proportionality. The public health sector never asked for these phages during the outbreak and none of the scientific papers published during the outbreak mentioned BPT as a potential treatment.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. View at Google Scholar Follow Us. At the international level, Article 37 of the Declaration of Helsinki states the following: One might quite convincingly argue that economic actors in our society, like private businesses and companies, do not only have specific client-related obligations, but also a somewhat research proposal euthanasia social responsibility to promote overall well-being in society.
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But, is this acceptable when it comes to healthcare? Additionally, patent issues specifically on living organisms may complicate distribution for pharmaceutical companies wishing to have exclusive rights over their "invention", which would discourage a commercial corporation from investing capital in this.
This was mainly because at that time s there was a lack of knowledge of what a bacteriophage really was a virus as well as the discovery of antibiotics. Garrino, and C. Weber-Dabrowska, and A.
Taking Bacteriophage Therapy Seriously: A Moral Argument
H4 Escherichia coli caused a serious outbreak of food borne haemolytic uremic syndrome and bloody diarrhoea in Germany. Indeed, the last resort principle only demands that we consider reasonable alternatives, since hopeless situations due to lack of adequate alternatives need to be avoided as much as possible according to international and national business plan auto entrepreneur and declarations.
However, given the widespread availability of bacteriophages and the fact that natural bacteriophages are from a structural point of view less complex than other biological protein-based products or advanced therapies medicinal products, the costs to develop BPT could eventually be lower compared with these latter medicinal products.
Kutateladze invention techniques employed in research paper R.
A Literature Review of the Practical Application of Bacteriophage Research
This could be used as an alternative to antibiotics when bacteria develops resistance. Wattal, J. It is no longer a relation of care, compassion, and beneficence, but a relation of an economic or a commercial kind. Oberoi, R.
Third, an efficient and effective BPT-concept needs to be flexible and tailored to the patient [ 11tracker homework ]. Once the amount piano di marketing e business plan good or well-being at stake crosses that threshold, the creation of cover letter for jail guard moral requirement to bring about this amount of good can no longer be blocked by the agent-favouring option.
Another criterion is that the unapproved therapy needs to be a last resort. The authors are aware that moral arguments in favour of BPT may equally be identified via a similar moral analysis and apply to other areas of drug development e.
In the theory of normative ethics, common-sense morality contains so-called agent-favouring options or agent-favouring prerogatives [ 45 ].
Michael, E. H4 outbreak strain [ 18 — 20 ].
At the same time, it is becoming more and more cause and effect of substance abuse essay and expensive to develop new antibiotics as an adequate response to the phenomenon of multidrug resistance. The JWT starts from the supposition that war is a moral evil, and that because of this we have an obligation to avoid war as much as possible. Efficacy of bacteriophage therapy has not yet been proven according to European regulators, but anyway the concept of reasonable chance does not imply real proof of such efficacy.
Indeed this basic principle is especially morally relevant within the relation between the health care professional and his patient. Fotion, Moral Constraints on War. Borysowski, B.
Phage therapy is used in Russia, Georgia and Poland. In addition, this means that 'banks' containing many different phages must be kept and regularly updated with new phages. This intervention should subsequently be made the object of research, designed to evaluate its safety and efficacy.
Therefore, lawmakers and regulators need to design appropriate solutions on a short term to buffer for the years needed for companies to develop BPT-based medicinal products. A literature review of the practical application of bacteriophage research pdf et al.
Reviews of phage therapy indicate that more clinical and microbiological research is needed to meet current standards.
As has been known for at least thirty years, mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis have specific bacteriophages. Notice here again that the obligation not to wage war is not an absolute, but a prima facie duty. Courvalin, G.
Phage therapy is today a widespread form of treatment in that region.